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Saint-Saens, Charles Camille
Born in Paris, October 9, 1835.
He began the study of music at seven years of age with Stamaty and continued it under Maleden and Halevy (composition), and Benoist (organ). In 1853 he was appointed organist of the Church of St. Mery, and in 1858-70 presided at theorgan of the Madeleine. In 1906-07 he visited the United States. His operas proved to least successful of his writings, and it is as an instrumental composer that he became widely known. In this field his works include four "symphonic poems", three symphonies, of which the C minor is the best known, concertos for pianoforte and violin, a quintet, a quartet, and two trios, for piano and strings, and some church music.
Salome, Theodore Cesar
Born in Paris, January 20, 1834.
He was well known, not only for his brilliant organ playing, but also for his chamber music, pianoforte pieces, songs, and church music.
He died in St. Germain in 1896.
Born in Philadelphia, January 29, 1838.
A pianist of much skill, he played duets very effectively with Gottschalk, who took a great interest in his welfare. In 1866 Sanderson went to London and appeared at Mellon's concerts with great success.
He died in New York City, September 27, 1871.
Sarasate, Pablo de
Born in Pamplona, Spain, March 10, 1844.
He studied under Alard and Reber at the Paris Conservatoire, and then started upon his career as a performer in France, England, the Orient, and America. In 1889 he made another trip to America, with Eugene d'Albert. His playing has been characterized as remarkable for both technique and tone. He wrote several short compositions for the violin.
Born in Samter (Posen), Prussia, February 25, 1847.
He studied at Kullak's Academy (Berlin), taught theory and composition there in 1870-81, an din 1881 took a similar post in the conservatory established by his brother Xaver. Scharwenka's works are chiefly pieces for the piano, but he also wrote songs, concert pieces for the violin and the 'cello, two symphonies, and other compositions.
Born in Samter (Posen), Prussia, January 6, 1850.
After study with Kullak and Wurst at Kullak's Academy, Berlin, he became a teacher in that institution in 1868. In 1874 he began a series of tours, in the course of which he visited America. He established the Scharwenka Conservatory in Berlin in 1881 and was its director until 1891, when he founded a similar conservatory in New York. In 1898 he returned to Berlin to assume the directorship of the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory, formed by consolidation with the school of Karl Klindworth. Among his compositions are a symphony, three pianoforte concertos, several Polish dances, suites, etudes, and songs.
Schnecker, Peter August
Born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, August 26, 1850.
He came to the United States in 1865, studied with S. P. Warren (New York) and at the Leipzig Conservatory, and in 1870-80 was assistant organist of St. Thomas' Church (New York). In 1872 he became organist and musical director of the West Presbyterian Church. He composed pianoforte pieces and much popular church music.
Born in Beslau, Germany, June 9, 1845.
His musical education was conducted at Leipzig by Brosig, Riedel, and Plaidy, and at the Royal School of Music in Munich, where he was instructed by Von Bulow and Rheinberger. He was a teacher in Munich in 1870-75, and from 1880 in Dresden, where he was appointed royal chamber virtuoso. His works include a pianoforte concerto, a sonata, and various other piano music.
Schubert, Franz (Peter)
Born in Vienna, Austria, January 31, 1797.
His musical education was begun by his father, who taught him the violin. He also studied from the age of seven under Michael Holzer, and his brother Ignaz gave him lessons on the pianoforte. In 1808 he was admitted as a soprano to the court choir. He became a pupil at the "Stadtconvict", the training school for court singers, where he was instructed in harmony by Ruzicka and in composition by Salieri. At fourteen he had composed a piano duet, and during the next year ye wrote much, producing an orverture and his earliest songs, "Hagars Klage" and "Der Vatermorder".
After leaving the court chapel he supported himself by teacher music, continuing his own studies in private, and devoting himself industriously to composition. He attempted all kinds of music, proving his powers of invention by operas, symphonies, choruses, overtures, canatas, psalms, masses, hallelujahs, trios, rondos, vocal and string quartets, songs, etc. For some time he was little appreciated, but when once he became well known his fame spread to every country where musical knowledge had made any considerable progress.
For a long time Schubert's reputation rested chiefly upon his ballads and songs - numbering more than six hundred - in which he no doubt excels the similar works of other composers; but gradually the musical world discovered the equal merits of his chamber music, "Impromptus", "Moments Musicaux", of his orchestral works, reaching their climax in the magnificent symphony in C, and of his other "imperishable works in nearly every branch of music". Dying at thirty-one, with such achievements to his credit, he left men to wonder whether, had his years been fully rounded out, he might not have made his name the greatest in musical annuals.
Of Schubert's ten symphonies, not one was produced during his lifetime, though they are all works of genius. His ideas came so quickly that the knowledge he possessed did not enable him to arrange them in the perfect order of the symphonies of Mozart and Beethoven. Among his greatest songs are "The Erlking", "The Trout", "The Wanderer", "Hark, Hark, the Lark", "Who is Sylvia?" etc. After the C symphony, his best instrumental works include the "Unfinished Symphony", the B minor (unfinished) and C major symphonies; the A minor, D minor, and G string quartets; pianoforte sonatas; the string quartet in C; and the "Rondeau Brillant" in B minor.
He died in Vienna, November 19, 1828.
Born in Prague (Bohemia), Austria-Hungary, August 2, 1825.
He studied pianoforte method with Kisch and counterpoint with Tomaschek. In 1844 he appeared at a recital in Paris, where he became well known as a virtuoso and was much in demand as a teacher. He removed to Dresden in 1870, and subsequently to Berlin. Schulhoff is best known for his brilliant piano music.
He died in Berlin in 1898.
Born in Zwickan, Saxony, June 8, 1810
At a very early age, and without instruction, he began to compose. In 1828 he became a law student at the University of Leipzig, but in 1830 finally devoted himself to music under the tuition of Friedrich Wieck and Heinrich Dorn. Clara, the daughter of Wieck, who was born in 1819 and became a celebrated pianist, was married to Schumann in 1840, and thenceforward, as also before, she shared largely in his work. In 1834, with others, Schumann established the "Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik", a journal which, for the ten years of his more intimate connection with it, exercised an influence on the development of the art not incomparable with that of Lessing's "Hamburg Dramaturgy" in drama.
Prior to 1840 Schumann's principal works were the "Fantasias", the "Kinderscenen", the "Etudes Symphoniques", the "Kreisleriana", the "Abegg" variations, the "Papillons", the "Carnaval" and two sonatas in F sharp minor and G minor. In the year following his marriage he published nearly one hundred and fifty songs, distinguished by the fidelity and subtilty with which they reproduced the most delicate shades of meaning in the poems selected for musical treatment. He then began his great series of orchestral works, his symphony in B flat being the first performed at the close of 1841. It was followed by his "Overture, Scherzo und Finale", his D minor symphony, three quartets, the piano quintet and quartet, the choral work "Das Paradies und die Peri" (1843), the C major symphone (1846); "Genoveva" (1847); "Manfred" (1848); the Faust music (1850); the E flat symphony (1851); and other works. For several years Schumann suffered from brain disease, and after an attempt to drown himself in 1854 he was confined in a private asylum, where he ended his days.
He died in Endenich, near Bonn, July 29, 1856.
Born in St. Petersburg, October 22, 1856.
He was a pupil in composition and pianoforte of Petersen and Stein at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, and continued his studies in Leipzig. Subsequently he was elected conductor of the Akademische Wagnerverein of Vienna. Schutt's published works include a comic opera, a pianofort concerto, a serenade for strings, variations for the piano, and songs.
Born in Aarhus (Jutland), Denmark, April 28, 1850.
Originally a druggist, he studied with various instructors, among them Gade, Taubert, and Liszt. In 1887-88 he was connected with Horak's Institute in Vienna, and there continued active as a teacher and concert pianist. His compositions consist of two comic operas, a piano concert, a sonata, several orchestral works, songs, and a number of pianoforte pieces.
Born is Moscow, January 6, 1872.
At the Moscow conservatory he was a pupil of Safonoff (pianoforte) and Tanejev (composition). From 1895 he made various tours in Europe. He wrote much pianoforte music.
Shackley, Frederick Newell
Born at Laconia, New Hampshire in 1868.
Sharpe, Herbert Francis
Born in Halifax (Yorkshire), England, March 1, 1861.
His studies were conducted at the National Training School, London. After a series of public appearances as a pianist, he became a professor in the Royal College of Music in 1884 and an examiner in 1890. He wrote (with Stanley Lucas) a "Pianoforte School", and composed much piano music.
Born in Kongsberg, Norway, January 11, 1856.
He was a pupil of Reinecke in Leipzig, studied also in Dresden, Munich, and Berlin, and became an organist and teacher in Christiania. A symphony and a string quartet are among his works, but more important are his many brilliant compositions for the pianoforte.
Born in Dorchester, England, July 14, 1839.
After study at the Leipzig Conservatory, he returned to England in 1858 and entered upon the profession of teaching in London. His compositions consist exclusively of pieces for the piano.
He died in London, March 3, 1889.
Sodermann, August Johann
Born in Stockholm, Sweden, July 17, 1832.
He received his musical training at the Leipzig Conservatory, and from 1862 until his death was conductor of the opera at Stockholm. Besides theatrical compositions and sacred songs, he wrote several brief vocal works of a national cast that became very popular.
He died in Stockholm, February 10, 1876.
Sousa, John Philip
Born in Wruzbach, near Lobenstein (Reuss_Schleiz), Germany, November 24, 1817.
He was a pupil of Schneider of Dessau. From 1841 he was a teacher in Dresden. His compositions are for the most part brilliant drawing room pieces, but he wrote teaching music, as well as trios, symphonies, and pianoforte concertos.
Born in Brunswick, Germany, April 5, 1784.
He studied as a child with his mother and other teachers at Seesen, whither the family had removed, later at Brunswick under Kunisch and Maucourt, and in 1802, having already been received as a player in the ducal orchestra, he became a pupil of Franz Eck. He soon acquired a great reputation as a violinist. In 1805 he was appointed conductor of the court concerts at Gotha, and in 1812 he was made musical director at the Theater an der Wein, Vienna, where, remaining till 1815, he wrote some of his finest dramatic works. After filling a similar position at Frankfort (1817-19), he became court conductor at Cassel in 1821. There he remained till 1857.
Spohr is regarded as the greatest violin composer of his day. His works for that instrument include solos, concertos, chamber music, etc. Among his other compositions are the operas "Faust" (1818), "Zemire und Azor" (1819), and "Jessonda" *1823), and the oratorios "Die letzten Dinge" (The Last Judgment, 1826), "Des Heilands letzte Stunden" (1835: known in English as Calvary), and "The Fall of Babylon".
Much of Spohr's music is of too scientific a nature for full popular appreciation, but his rank among great composers is high. In all, his compositions number nearly two hundred. His "Violin School" (1831), still a standard book, is one of the best works on violin playing ever written.
He died in Cassel, October 22, 1859.
Born in Lemberg, Galicia, in 1825 (1830?).
He received his musical education in Vienna, traveled extensively in Europe, and in 1845 he came to America, where he taught and appeared as a concert pianist. From 1856 he was active for some years as an impresario. His works include the opera "Giovanna de Napoli", first presented in New York, and a number of pianoforte pieces.
He died in Paris, October 8, 1887.
Born in Vienna, Austria, October, 25, 1825.
He studied the violin and composition in Vienna, became an orchestral conductor, and made a tour of the principal capitals of Europe. In 1872 he visited the United States, where he conducted an orchestra of a thousand pieces at the World's Peace Jubilee in Boston, and also gave several concerts in New York. Besides about four hundred compositions of dance music, he wrote a number of operettas that met with great success.
He died in Vienna, June 3, 1899.
Streabbog (an anagram for Gobbaerts), Jean Louis
Born in Antwerp, Switzerland, September 28, 1835.
He was a pianist who wrote a great number of popular pianoforte compositions.
He died in Saint Gilles, near Brussels, April 28, 1886.
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