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Born in Konnisgberg, (Prussia), Germany, October 5, 1813.
In 1832 he went to St. Petersburg, where he taught and performed upon the piano. From 1850 he undertook concert tours in which he made a distinguished success, largely on account of his mastery over technical difficulties. In 1866 he settled as a teacher in Bergen, Norway. His compositions are collected under the title of "Etudes Poetiques".
He died in Bergen, March 12, 1869.
Halle, Lady Charles
Handel, Georg Friedrich
(English form, George Frederick Handel)
Born in Halle, Prussian Saxony, February 23, 1685.
His father, intending him for the law, at first did all he could to discourage his musical development; but the boy hid in the attic a small clavichord, upon which he practiced while the rest of the family slept. At the age of seven he went with his father to visit a step brother employed in the household of the Duke of Sexe-Weissenfels. During this visit the Duke, happening to hear him play upon the chapel organ, was so impressed with the boys performance that he persuaded the father to let his son follow his own inclination, and on returning to Halle he was placed under the tuition of Zachau.
Until 1705 Handel held various minor positions, but in that year he produced at Hamburg his first opera, "Almira" and soon after it "Nero". Later he went to Italy, where he brought out "Rodrigo" and "Agrippina". On his return to Germany in 1709 he became kapellmeister to the Elector George of Hanover, afterward George I of England, with whose permission in 1710 he went to London. There in 1711 he produced his opera "Rinaldo". In 1718 he became musical director to the Duke of Chandos, and within three years composed the Chandos "Te Deums" and Chandos anthems, which alone would have immortalized his name. In 1720 he was placed at the head of the new Royal Academy of Music, where Ariosti and Buononcini were also engaged, and a famous rivalry and feud followed, the field at last being left to Handel, although he ruined himself financially. Before 1740, in spite of pecuniary failures, he produced more than twenty operas.
Handel's oratorios, whereby he retrieved his fortunes, constitute the chief foundation of his fame. Among the best known are: "Saul" (1739); "Israel in Egypt" (1739); "The Messiah" (1742); still the most famous oratorio ever written; "Samson" (1743); "Judas Macabaeus" (1747). His compositions include twenty-three works of this class.
The musical powers of Handel can hardly be too highly estimated. If in operatic and instrumental music later composers have surpassed him, none has ever equaled him in the strength and sublimity ofhis choruses, and in oratorio his supremacy is undisputed.
He died in London, April 14, 1759.
Born in Presburg, Hungary, in 1822.
His musical education was acquired at the conservatory in Vienna and under Kreutzer and Joseph Matalay. At twelve years of age he made a successful tour of many countries. In 1840 he gave concerts in Germany, Sweden, Norway, and Russia; in 1850 he visited London; and from 1853 to 1858 he toured California, South America, and Australia. King Victor Emmanuel of Italy and the Sultan of Turkey entertained him in 1860. About 1878 he withdrew to private life. In a book, "From the Diary of an Austrian Virtuoso", which he published in 1858-59, he gave an account of his American experiences.
He died in Vienna, December 9, 1887.
Born in Rohrau, Austria, March 31, 1732.
He was one of the most distinguished of the so called classical composers, as well as an improver, if not the creator of the symphony, and he has been called the father of modern orchestral music. His works consist of oratorios, among which are "The Creation" and "The Seasons"; symphonies, of which Nos. 1, 2, 6, 9, 11, and 12 are the most famous; more than 80 string quartets; masses and other church music; concertos for many instruments; cantatas; operas; sonatas; and a great number of other compositions, especially for the pianoforte. He also wrote songs, part-songs, etc., and composed the Austrian national anthem. "His music was often grand, sometimes reaching even the sublime, but never revealing any deep tragic power. He was the musical apostle of the happy and the beautiful".
He died in Vienna, May 31, 1809.
Born in Pesth, Hungary, May 15, 1815.
At an early age he played in public, and at thirteen went to Vienna to receive lessons from Anton Halm. In 1827 and the following years he gave concerts throughout Hungary and Germany. In 1858 he went to reside in Paris. His compositions for the pianoforte are distinguished by originality of thought and treatment, elevation of style, and poetic refinement. Heller's published works number about 150, including many admirable arrangements for the piano of the songs of Schubert, Mendelssohn, and other composers.
He died in Paris, January 14, 1888.
Henselt, Adolf von
Born in Schwabach, Bavaria, May 12, 1814.
He was a pupil first of Lasser and then of Leihter in Vienna. Afterward, through the generosity of Kind Ludwug I., he was enabled to study in Weimar under Hummel. In 1838 he went to St. Petersbug, where he was appointed chamber pianist to the Empress of Russia and also to the Prince von Oldenburg. Later he was the official inspector of musical instruction in all the governmental educational institutions for girls. On account of his extreme nervousness and shyness, he rarely played in public. Indeed, Henselt is perhaps the only pianist of the first rank who never toured extensively. His works include valuable transcriptions of Beethoven and Weber, a concerto, a pianoforte trio, and numerous other beautiful pianoforte pieces.
Hi died in Warmbrunn, Silesia, October 10, 1889.
Herold, Louis Joseph Ferdinand
Born in Paris, January 28, 1791
His work includes symphonies, chamber music, songs, etc.; but he is best known by his operas, "Zampa", "Marie"< and "Le Pre aux Clercs" which are still given in Germany and France.
He died in Thernes, near Paris, January 19, 1833.
Born in Frankfort, Germany, October 24, 1811.
He was a conductor, pianist, and musical writer and critic, as well as a master in composition. He studied eagerly in his youth, was a pupil of Hofmann (violin), alys Schmitt (pianoforte), and Vollweiler (harmony and counterpoint), and at twelve began to compose. In 1825 he became a pupil of Hummel; from 1828 to 1835 he taught compositions at Choron's School of Music, Paris; then, returning to Frankfort, he applied himself to composition. In 1850 he went to Cologne, and there he found the conservatory. The oratorio "Die Zerstorung Jerusalems", his most famous work, appeared in 1840. He wrote operas, cantatas, and compositions in almost every other form. As lecturer and writer he made permanent contributions to musical literature.
He died in Cologne, May 10, 1885.
Born in Manchester, England, May 24, 1831.
He had many musical teachers, among whom were his father, Meyer, Pleyel, Moscheles, Rubinstein, Dohler, Thalberg, and Liszt. At the age of sixteen he came to New York, and in 1848 he made a tour of the United States. He is well remembered as pianist to Jenny Lind, and he also played with Gottschalk and with Von Bulow (1875). During the many years that he lived in New York he was a successful teacher and accomplished much for musical progress in America. His compositions include pieces for the piano, songs, part-songs, ballads, and anthems and other church music.
Born in Leobschutz, Prussia, April 20, 1866.
He was a pupil of Kullak, and has composed comic operas ("Carmosinella"; "The Bey of Morocco") and many pieces for the pianoforte.
Hummel, Johann Nepomuk
Born in Presburg, Hungary, November 14, 1778.
His musical education was conducted by his father, and he also studied for two years with Mozart, under who auspices he made his debut in 1787. In the following years he made successful tours through Germany, England, Denmark, and Holland. From 1804 to 1811 he was deputy kapellmeister, under Haydn, to Prince Esterhazy. In 1816-19 he held a similar position at Stuttgart; then, going to Weimar, he remained there as kapellmeister till his death. He made notable professional tours, visiting St. Petersburg (1822); Paris (1825); Belgium and Holland (1826); Vienna (1827); Warsaw (1828); England (1830 and 1833). In all places he appeared with triumphant success. His compositions, once very popular, are beautiful in a somewhat formal way, and highly ornamented. The comprise dramatic, church, and instrumental music in various styles. He was a great pianist for his time, and some of his compositions have a permanent place among musical works.
He died in Weimar, October 17, 1837.
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